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The Battle of Grunwald: An Iconic Medieval Battle of Central and Eastern Europe

The Battle of Grunwald: An Iconic Medieval Battle of Central and Eastern Europe


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During medieval times, the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania had one main enemy – the Teutonic Order. One of the most important battles between these armies took place on July 15, 1410.

In the morning, two large armies stood on opposing sides of the field. One group was led by the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Urlich von Jungingen. Their rivals were the connected forces of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania led by King Władysław Jagiełło and his brother Vytautas. According to the descriptions, it was a hot and sunny day. The battle took just a few hours, but there were countless victims. By the evening, the field was full of bodies. The statistics prepared by historians say that the Teutonic Order lost 200-400 Teutonic Knights and 8,000 other warriors, while their enemies lost 4,000-5,000 soldiers. But the newest research suggests different numbers.

The Worst Battle of the Region

The battle is also known as the First Battle of Tannenberg and the Battle of Žalgiris. The battlefield was located in the territory of the monastic state of the Teutonic Order. It was on the plains between three villages: Stębark (Tannenberg), Łodwigowo (Ludwikowice, Lidwigsdorf), and Grunwald.

Territory of the State of the Teutonic Order; the locations and dates of major battles, including the Battle of Grunwald, are indicated by crossed red swords. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

It was the result of the long lasting conflict between the sides. The Teutonic Order arrived in Prussia in 1230. They conquered the land of Prussia and some other regions which belonged to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Kingdom of Poland. The war with the Teutonic Order started in 1409 with the uprising in Teutonic-held Samogitia. It was started by Vytautas’ forces.

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When the conflict grew, Jungingen asked the Polish King to stay neutral and not support Lithuania. Jagiełło refused, so the Grand Master decided to attack the Kingdom of Poland. The Teutonic Order burned the castle at Dobrzyń nad Wisłą and captured Bobrowniki and a few more towns. Negotiation attempts with the Teutonic Order failed, so both sides prepared for battle.

The Polish-Lithuanian forces had their strategy ready at the end of 1409. The King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania decided that their armies would attack the greatest castle and the capital of the Teutonic Order – Marienburg (Malbork). However, the Teutonic Order’s actions finally shifted the battle to the field near Grunwald.

Map of army movements in the Grunwald campaign. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

The battle started from a diplomatic incident. According to Jan Długosz, who served as the secretary to the Bishop of Cracow and wrote about the battle 60 years later:

''Mikolaj, the deputy chancellor of the Polish Kingdom, having received the royal order, went to the supply columns, and the king intended to put on his helmet and march off to battle. Suddenly, two heralds were announced, led under the protection of Polish knights in order to avoid an act of aggression. One of them, from the Roman king, had a black eagle on a gold field in his coat of arms, and the other, from the Szczecin duke, had a red griffin on a white field. They came out of the enemy's army carrying unsheathed swords in their hands, demanding to be brought into the king's presence. The Prussian Master Ulrich sent them to King Władysław, adding also an arrogant order to rouse the king to commence the battle without delay and to stand in ranks to fight.''

It is impossible to count the number of warriors that were in both armies. However, historians suggest that there could have been about 21,000 on the side of Teutonic Order and perhaps 29,000 on the Polish and Lithuanian side. The Grand Master of the Teutonic Order lost his life during the battle - his body was buried in Marienburg Castle. The battle became one of a few of the most important ones in this part of the world, but history describes it a little bit differently.

Lithuanians fighting with Teutonic Knights (bas-relief).

The Power of Propaganda

The battle of Grunwald is one of the most popular motifs in Polish history. It became one of the symbols of Polish bravery and triumph. After the battle, the armies met under the walls of the castle in Malbork (German Marienburg). The siege of Malbork took place from July 25 to September 19, 1410. It ended with the Polish-Lithuanian forces’ loss. Marienburg is now the biggest medieval brick castle in the world and a UNESCO World Heritage site.

Malbork Castle from across the Nogat. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Moreover, many modern essays and books identify the leader of the Polish-Lithuanian forces as King Władysław II Jagiełło, also known as Jogaila. However, before World War II, historians were sure that the one who led the army was Vytautas the Great (known also as Witold Kiejstutowicz), a brother of Jogaila and the Grand Duke of Lithuania. Jogaila wasn't an impressive warrior, but he was a good king. On the other hand, Vytautas was known to have been a charismatic and very skillful leader.

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The most famous painting related to the history of the battle is a monumental work by Jan Matejko. Matejko lived during the 19th century. He placed Vytautas, not Jogaila, at the center of the painting. He presented the Grand Duke of Lithuania as the heart of the army, while Jogaila did not appear on the painting at all.

This painting agrees with the statements of Jagiellonian University historians, who suggested that the battle of Grunwald was led by the Lithuanian Duke and it was won due to his strategy and skills. After 1945, historians began to write that they were convinced of Jogaila’s importance and created a story more like a legend or propaganda than historical fact. A few researchers still fight about the true story behind the battle.

Battle of Grunwald by Jan Matejko (1878). ( )

The Power of the Legend

Every year, Polish people organize a reenactment of the battle near Grunwald. It is one of the biggest events connected with the history of Poland during the summer. A few days later, a similar event takes place in Malbork. Sometimes the main guest of the celebrations is the current Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, who lives in Vienna, Austria.

A museum for the battle stands on the battlefield and researchers are still looking for the graves of the warriors. One burial has been discovered near the chapel located on the field. However, many secrets of the battle still wait to be unearthed.

A monument to the Battle of Grunwald was erected in Kraków for the battle's 500th anniversary. It was destroyed during World War II by the Germans and rebuilt in 1976. ( CC BY 2.0 )


Battle of Grunwald

The Battle of Grunwald, Battle of Žalgiris or First Battle of Tannenberg was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War. The alliance of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led respectively by King Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila) and Grand Duke Vytautas, decisively defeated the German–Prussian Teutonic Knights, led by Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen. Most of the Teutonic Knights' leadership were killed or taken prisoner. Although defeated, the Teutonic Knights withstood the siege of their fortress in Marienburg (Malbork) and suffered minimal territorial losses at the Peace of Thorn (1411) (Toruń), with other territorial disputes continuing until the Peace of Melno in 1422. The knights, however, would never recover their former power, and the financial burden of war reparations caused internal conflicts and an economic downturn in the lands under their control. The battle shifted the balance of power in Central and Eastern Europe and marked the rise of the Polish–Lithuanian union as the dominant political and military force in the region. [8]

Kingdom of
Poland
      • Kraków
      • SandomierzŁęczyca
      • Lublin
      • Poznań
      • KaliszBrześć Kujawski and InowrocławSieradz
      • Wieluń Land
      • Lwów Land
      • Chełm Land
      • Halych Land
      • Przemyśl Land
      • Podolia
      Grand Duchy
      of Lithuania
      • regions and towns:
        • Trakai
        • Vilnius
        • Grodno
        • Kaunas
        • Lida
        • Medininkai
        • Smolensk-Orsha
        • Smolensk-Mstsislaw
        • Polotsk
        • Vitebsk
        • Kiev
        • Pinsk
        • Drohiczyn
        • Mielnik
        • Navahrudak
        • Brest
        • Vawkavysk
        • Kremenets
        • Starodub
        • Duchy of Warsaw[1]
        • Duchy of Belz
        • Duchy of Płock
        • Pomerania-Stolp
        • Pomerania-Stargard
        • Principality of Moldavia[2]
        • Principality of Smolensk
        • Lipka Tatars from Golden Horde[3]
          • Bohemian[4] and Moravian mercenaries
          • Moravian volunteers [4][5]
          Teutonic Order
          • (State of the Teutonic Order)
              :
              • Althausen
              • Elbing
              • Danzig
              • Ragnit
              • Schönsee
              • Strasburg
              • Werder der Weichsel
              • Culmerland
              • Allenstein
              • Bartenstein
              • Balga
              • Brandenburg
              • Braunsberg
              • Bratyan and Neumarkt
              • Elbing
              • Engelsburg
              • Danzig
              • Dirschau
              • Graudenz
              • Heiligenbeil
              • Kulm
              • Königsberg
              • Königsberg-Old town
              • Lessen
              • Mewe
              • Nessau
              • Osterode
              • Ortelsburg
              • Ragnit
              • Roggenhausen
              • Schlochau
              • Schwetz
              • Stuhm
              • Thorn
              • Tuchel
              guest crusaders
              from Germany and Livonia
                • German knights
                • Westphalian knights
                • Brunswicker knights
                • Meissen knights
                • knights of Inflants and Rhineland
                • Swiss knights
                • Pomerania-Stettin
                • Duchy of Oels
                • Prince-Bishopric of Warmia
                • Bishopric of Pomesania
                • Bishopric of Culm
                • Bishopric of Sambia
                • King Władysław II Jagiełło (supreme commander [4] )
                • Grand Duke Vytautas (battlefield commander)
                • Duke Sigismund Korybut
                • Duke Janusz
                • Duke Siemowit VI
                • Duke Siemowit V
                • Prince Lengvenis
                • Duke Bogislav VIII
                • Prince Alexander
                • Khan Jalal ad-Din
                • Naiman-Beg
                • Jan Sokol of Lamberk (mercenary commanders)
                • Jan of Jičín (commander of Moravian volunteers)
                • Grandmaster Ulrich von Jungingen
                • Grand Marshal Friedrich von Wallenrode
                • Grand Komtur Kuno von Lichtenstein
                • Grand Treasurer Thomas von Merheim
                • Nicholas von
                  Renys
                • Duke Casimir V
                • Duke Konrad VII
                • Christian von Gersdorf

                Very heavy: 8,000 Teutonic Knights killed, 14,000 taken prisoner,

                The battle was one of the largest in medieval Europe and is regarded as one of the most important victories in the histories of Poland and Lithuania and is also widely celebrated in Belarus. [9] It has been used as a source of romantic legends and national pride, becoming a larger symbol of struggle against foreign invaders. [10] During the 20th century, the battle was used in Nazi German and Soviet propaganda campaigns. Only in recent decades have historians moved towards a dispassionate, scholarly assessment of the battle, reconciling the previous narratives, which differed widely by nation. [ citation needed ]


                The Battle of Grunwald: An Iconic Medieval Battle of Central and Eastern Europe - History

                By Joe Pinkstone For Mailonline 16:14 BST 30 Apr 2021 , updated 17:30 BST 30 Apr 2021

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                • Well-preserved sword, knives, scabbard and belt were found in northern Poland
                • Exact location has been kept a secret but further excavations are planned
                • The find has been called a 'once-in-a-decade' discovery by local authorities

                An amateur metal detectorist has discovered a medieval sword which may have been used by a soldier during the Battle of Grunwald in 1410.

                Alexander Medvedev discovered the sword near Olsztyn, in northern Poland, alongside a metal scabbard, a belt and two knives.

                Archaeologists have hailed the discovery as a once-in-a-decade find and it will now be studied and preserved at the museum of the Battle of Grunwald.

                What was the Battle of Grunwald?

                The Battle of Grunwald on July 15, 1410 was fought at Tannenberg in northeastern Poland (formerly East Prussia).

                It was a major Polish-Lithuanian victory over the Knights of the Teutonic Order.

                The battle marked the end of the order’s expansion along the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea and the beginning of the decline of its power.

                It marked the emergence of Poland-Lithuania as one of Europe’s most powerful states.

                A full dig is now being planned at the undisclosed site to learn more about the Battle of Grunwald on July 15, 1410.

                The bloody battle saw the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania bring about the decline of the Teutonic Order and trigger a shift in power in Europe which lasted for centuries.

                The battle, one of the largest fought in medieval Europe, took place on territory belonging to the State of the Teutonic Order, now located in modern-day Poland.

                It involved an estimated 27,000 to 66,000 men and resulted in some 2,000 Polish-Lithuanian deaths, 8,000 Teutonic knights were killed, and 14,000 Teutonic knights were taken prisoner.

                The battle marked the rise of the Polish-Lithuanian union as the dominant political and military force in Central and Eastern Europe for the next two centuries.

                Archaeologists hope to find the remains of the knight who once wielded the remarkably well-preserved sword.

                Szymon Drej, the director of Battle of Grunwald Museum, said that they hope to solve the mystery as to why nobody took the sword of the slain soldier as they would have been very valuable.

                The Office of the Warminsko-Mazurskie Province Governor said: 'It's a phenomenal set in the form of a sword, scabbard, belt and two knives.

                'Taking into account that these relics come from the turn of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and have therefore been in the ground for about 600 years, they are preserved in an extremely good state.'


                Battle of Grunwald: One of history’s ‘greatest battles’ remembered on 609th anniversary

                In recognition of the Polish-Lithuanian victory, ever since 1998 thousands of people have gathered on the anniversary to re-enact the battle in the fields of Grunwald. Muzeum Bitwy pod Grunwaldem/Facebook

                To 15th century Poland, the growth of the Teutonic Knights was seen as one of the country’s greatest threats.

                Invited by the Mazovian Duke Konrad in 1226 to help defend the Kingdom from pagan Prussians, little could he have imagined that the warriors would soon turn.

                The Teutonic Knights carved out enough land from Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to establish their own state, acting against both their Christian and pagan neighbours.

                This year’s commemorative battle on July 9th-15th, gathered over 1,000 historic reconstructors from Poland, across Europe and even South Africa, as well as 80,000 spectators. Tomasz Waszczuk/PAP

                Their expansion led to the Polish-Lithuanian alliance with the Grand Duke Jogaila marrying Queen Jadwiga in 1386, adopting Christianity and the name Władysław along the way.

                Lithuania’s conversion to Christianity should have been enough to put a stop to Teutonic activities in the region, but the knights contested the act before the Pope and continued their military advance to the south and east. With political mediations failing, both sides were ripe for war.

                On July 15th, 1410, on the fields between Grunwald, Stębark and Łodwigowo in northern Poland over 50,000 knights, infantrymen and gunners met in one of the biggest battles of medieval Europe. Tomasz Waszczuk/PAP

                On July 15th, 1410, on the fields between Grunwald, Stębark and Łodwigowo in northern Poland over 50,000 knights, infantrymen and gunners met in one of the biggest battles of medieval Europe.

                In recognition of the Polish-Lithuanian victory, ever since 1998 thousands of people have gathered on the anniversary to re-enact the battle in the fields of Grunwald, creating a grand spectacle of swords, armour-clad knights and cavalry, which is one of the world’s largest historical re-enactments.

                The Polish-Lithuanian forces were into battle led by king Władysław II Jagiełło (played by Jacek Szymański) on horseback. Tomasz Waszczuk/PAP

                This year’s edition, held on July 9th-15th, gathered over 1,000 historic reconstructors from Poland, across Europe and even South Africa, as well as 80,000 spectators. The celebration had its culminating moment on Saturday, with the grand battle taking place at 15:00.

                Polish-Lithuanian forces led by king Władysław II Jagiełło (played by Jacek Szymański) faced the Teutonic knights under the leadership of the Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen (Jarosław Struczyński).

                Jan Matejko’s painting of the battle has been called “a masterpiece depiction of a battle scene”. Public domain

                Months of preparation are necessary to take part in the re-enactment. Participants are required not just to be proficient in combat, but also to wear historically accurate outfits. The knights are then divided into traditional banners with knights appointed the roles of historic commanders to best present the tactics of medieval armies.

                David Gordon from the United States, one of the spectators who witnessed the battle this year wrote on Facebook on July 13th: “The battle starts with the farmers stacking hay until the Teutonic Knights attack them, and burn their village.”

                Months of preparation are necessary to take part in the re-enactment. Participants are required not just to be proficient in combat, but also to wear historically accurate outfits. Muzeum Bitwy pod Grunwaldem/Facebook

                The battle scenario is based on historic chronicles of the actual event. After the attack on the villagers, armed forces mobilized across the country, leading to the creation of an enormous fighting force: Polish and Lithuanian knights, Tatar light cavalry and Ruthenian warriors faced the Teutonic knights supported by allies from Germanic states and experienced crusaders from Western Europe.

                Once the battle began, the scale of victory was tilted to the Teutonic side. It was not until the end of the battle that the Polish-Lithuanian forces began to turn the tide in their favour. Teutonic rolling wagons, artillery and archers where shown alongside the cavalry and infantry, to present the military technics and tactics from the time.

                The battle shifted the balance of power in Central and Eastern Europe and marked the rise of the Polish–Lithuanian union as the dominant political and military force in the region. Muzeum Bitwy pod Grunwaldem/Facebook

                As always, the Polish-Lithuanian forces defeated the Teuatonian knights, to the surprise of no one.

                Summing up the day, American Gordon wrote: “Cavalry. Archers. A cannon and mortars. Swords. The Teutonic Knights are defeated. Poland is free. until the next time.”


                600-year-old axe heads used in hand-to-hand fighting in Battle of Grunwald found in field

                The discovery of the battle axes has been called an archaeological sensation. Tomasz Waszczuk/PAP

                Two battle axes used in hand-to-hand fighting at the Battle of Grunwald over 600 years ago have been found by detectorists during a sweep of the famous battle site in northern Poland.

                The find, which has astonished archaeologists, is all the more important as the melee weapons are in remarkably good condition.

                The axes are of two different types. One has a longer closed shaft for the handle and the other has a shorter open shaft. Tomasz Waszczuk/PAP

                According to Dr. Szymon Dreja, director of the Museum of the Battle of Grunwald, the discovery of the battle axes are an archaeological sensation.

                “In seven years of our archaeological research we have never had such an exciting, important and well-preserved find,” he stressed.

                According to the director, there is little doubt that the axes come from what many historians say was the largest battle of the middle ages in Europe.

                “The context of these finds, the preliminary dating to the fifteenth century and the type of axes clearly indicate that they are directly related to the Battle of Grunwald of July 15, 1410,” he said.

                Although they have been in the ground for over six centuries, the axes are in almost perfect condition. Tomasz Waszczuk/PAP

                The Battle of Grunwald was fought in 1410 and saw the joint forces of Poland and Lithuania defeat the Knights of the Teutonic Order.

                Over 50,000 knights, gunners and infantry clashed on the fields near the village of Grunwald in what was possibly the biggest battle of medieval Europe.

                The battle marked the end of the order’s expansion along the south-eastern coast of the Baltic Sea and the beginning of the decline of its power. It also marked the emergence of Poland-Lithuania as one of Europe’s most powerful states.

                During this year's search of the battlefield, detectorists also found a handle fragment of a medieval short sword as well as dozens of other objects, mainly spear heads. Tomasz Waszczuk/PAP

                The battle axes were found by Aleksander Miedwiedew, a member of the search team who stumbled upon them with his metal detector in a marshy area, at a depth of about 80 centimetres, a few metres away from each other.

                The axes are of two different types. One has a longer closed shaft for the handle and the other has a shorter open shaft.

                Although they have been in the ground for over six centuries, the axes are in almost perfect condition. According to Miedwiedew, this is because they ended up in swampy ground, which as a wet environment protected the axes off from air and corrosion.

                />The mystery still waiting to be discovered is the location of the mass grave of knights who died in one of the greatest battles of medieval Europe. Public domain

                He said: “After removing these axes, we rinsed them under running water and they look like new.”

                The axes have been preserved in such a good condition that they even have the rivets by which they were attached to their wooden handles.

                Describing how he felt when he found the axes, he said “It was a huge shot of endorphins, adrenaline plus a hundred. It was like flying to the moon. Like crossing a bridge between people from 1410 and us.”

                The axes were found by Aleksander Miedwiedew, a member of the search team who stumbled upon them with his metal detector in a marshy area a few metres away from each other. Tomasz Waszczuk/PAP

                Seventy metal detectorists took part in the search, which ended on Saturday. For seven years, dozens of detectorists and history lovers from all over Europe have been coming to the battle site under the supervision of archaeologists to comb through the fields.

                “The specificity of this place requires us to change our methods a little bit. We do not do it with the typical excavation method. We cooperate with detectorists who have their own equipment, their own metal detectors,” said Adam Górecki, the archaeological research manager.

                The museum is not revealing the precise location of the find because they believe that other artefacts are still lying in the ground. Tomasz Waszczuk/PAP

                In previous years, archaeologists from many countries have come to search the site of the battle. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, fewer people took part this year. Despite its reduced size, the search produced incredible results.

                During this year's research of the Grunwald battlefield several dozen artefacts were found in addition to the two battle axes.

                These include a handle fragment of a medieval short sword as well as dozens of other objects, mainly spear heads.

                According to Dr. Szymon Dreja (L), director of the Museum of the Battle of Grunwald, the discovery of the battle axes are an archaeological sensation. Muzeum Bitwy pod Grunwaldem/Facebook

                The museum is not revealing the precise location of the find because they believe that other artefacts are still lying in the ground. For this reason, they are planning more archaeological excavations later this year.

                The mystery still waiting to be discovered is the location of the mass grave of knights who died in one of the greatest battles of medieval Europe.

                So far, burial places have only been found near the ruins of the battle chapel. During archaeological work in the 1960s and 1980s, bones of about 300 men were discovered there. In the battle, however, several thousand people died fighting on both sides.


                'A once-in-a-decade find': Medieval sword unearthed by a metal detectorist in Poland may have been used in the Battle of Grunwald in 1410

                Alexander Medvedev discovered the sword near Olsztyn, in northern Poland, alongside a metal scabbard, a belt and two knives.

                Archaeologists have hailed the discovery as a once-in-a-decade find and it will now be studied and preserved at the museum of the Battle of Grunwald.

                An amateur metal detectorist has discovered a medieval sword which may have been used by a soldier during the Battle of Grunwald in 1410

                Archaeologists have hailed the discovery as a once-in-a-decade find and it will be studied and preserved at the museum of the Battle of Grunwald

                What was the Battle of Grunwald?

                The Battle of Grunwald on July 15, 1410 was fought at Tannenberg in northeastern Poland (formerly East Prussia).

                It was a major Polish-Lithuanian victory over the Knights of the Teutonic Order.

                The battle marked the end of the order’s expansion along the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea and the beginning of the decline of its power.

                It marked the emergence of Poland-Lithuania as one of Europe’s most powerful states.

                A full dig is now being planned at the undisclosed site to learn more about the Battle of Grunwald on July 15, 1410.

                The bloody battle saw the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania bring about the decline of the Teutonic Order and trigger a shift in power in Europe which lasted for centuries.

                The battle, one of the largest fought in medieval Europe, took place on territory belonging to the State of the Teutonic Order, now located in modern-day Poland.

                It involved an estimated 27,000 to 66,000 men and resulted in some 2,000 Polish-Lithuanian deaths, 8,000 Teutonic knights were killed, and 14,000 Teutonic knights were taken prisoner.

                The battle marked the rise of the Polish-Lithuanian union as the dominant political and military force in Central and Eastern Europe for the next two centuries.

                Archaeologists hope to find the remains of the knight who once wielded the remarkably well-preserved sword.

                Szymon Drej, the director of Battle of Grunwald Museum, said that they hope to solve the mystery as to why nobody took the sword of the slain soldier as they would have been very valuable.

                The Office of the Warminsko-Mazurskie Province Governor said: 'It's a phenomenal set in the form of a sword, scabbard, belt and two knives.

                'Taking into account that these relics come from the turn of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and have therefore been in the ground for about 600 years, they are preserved in an extremely good state.'

                A full dig is now being planned at the undisclosed site of the Battle of Grunwald on July 15, 1410, near the town of Olstyn

                The Office of the Warminsko-Mazurskie Province Governor said: 'It's a phenomenal set in the form of a sword, scabbard, belt and two knives'

                The bloody Battle of Grunwald (pictured) between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania triggered the decline of the Teutonic Order and brought about a shift in power in Europe which lasted for centuries


                Battle of Grunwald

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                Battle of Grunwald, (First Tannenberg), (July 15, 1410), battle fought at Tannenberg (Polish: Stębark) in northeastern Poland (formerly East Prussia) that was a major Polish-Lithuanian victory over the Knights of the Teutonic Order. The battle marked the end of the order’s expansion along the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea and the beginning of the decline of its power. Additionally, the defeat of the Teutonic Knights by a Polish-Lithuanian army is an event embedded in racial legend-seen as a tragic or triumphant moment in the epic struggle between the Germanic peoples and the Slavs. More prosaically, it marked the emergence of Poland-Lithuania as one of Europe’s most powerful states.

                The Order of the Teutonic Knights, originally founded during the Crusades in the Holy Land, had become rulers of a state in Prussia. From there they mounted crusading campaigns against their non-Christian neighbors, including the Duchy of Lithuania. In 1386 Lithuania’s ruler converted to Christianity and married the queen of Poland, on her death becoming ruler of Poland as King Ladislav II Jagiellon. The Teutonic Knights contested the sincerity of Jagiellon’s conversion and, in 1409, their choleric Grand Master, Ulrich von Jungingen, declared war on Poland and Lithuania. He had underrated the joint power and unity of the newly conjoined states.

                In the summer of 1410, an army led by King Jagiellon and Grand Duke Witold of Lithuania advanced upon the Teutonic Knights’ capital at Marienberg. The Teutonic Knights confronted the invaders between the villages of Grunwald and Tannenberg, in what is now northern Poland. Although outnumbered, the Knights were confident in the strength of their disciplined armored cavalry. The opposing lines were drawn up early in the morning, but until noon a standoff prevailed. Exposed to the summer sun, the Knights cooked inside their armor. An attempt to fire a pair of bombards—unwieldy siege cannon—against the Polish-Lithuanian troops had no effect. Grand Master von Jungingen, reduced to insults in his desperation to provoke his enemy to action, sent swords to Jagiellon and Witold with the ironic advice that they might find them useful if they ever fought a battle.

                Eventually the fighting began, with swift success for the Teutonic Knights. Clashing with Lithuanian cavalry on the enemy right, the charging Knights swept them from the field. Returning from the pursuit, they then joined in the tougher fighting against the Poles on the PolishLithuanian left. Again the Knights gained the upper hand. King Jagiellon was narrowly saved from capture or death as von Jungingen led the charge in person. But at this crucial juncture the survivors of the Lithuanian cavalry returned to the battlefield and crashed into the rear of the Teutonic Knights. The Grand Master was killed by a lancethrust through the throat as the rest of the Knights made a fighting withdrawal to their camp. Their attempt to secure a defensive position behind wagons failed and many of them were cut down. By the end of the day most of the Teutonic Knights’ troops were either dead or prisoners.

                Despite the scale of their victory, the Polish-Lithuanian army failed to take Marienberg and peace was made the following year on mild terms. The Teutonic Knights never regained their dominance, and Poland-Lithuania became the major power in eastern Europe. The victory is celebrated in the national histories of Lithuania, Poland, and Belrus. In the Soviet period it was also retrospectively claimed as a Russian triumph, because of the presence of some troops from Smolensk. When the Germans triumphed over the Russians in the early stages of World War I, they called the battle Tannenberg so they could claim revenge for the defeat after half a millennium.

                Losses: Polish-Lithuanian, 5,000 dead of 39,000 Teutonic, 8,000 dead and 14,000 captured of 27,000.


                Sources

                There are few contemporary, reliable sources about the battle, and most were produced by Poles. The most important and trustworthy source is Cronica conflictus Wladislai regis Poloniae cum Cruciferis anno Christi 1410, which was written within a year of the battle by an eyewitness. Its authorship is uncertain, but several candidates have been proposed: Polish deputy chancellor Mikołaj Trąba and Władysław II Jagiełło's secretary Zbigniew Oleśnicki. While the original Cronica conflictus did not survive, a short summary from the 16th century has been preserved. Another important source is Historiae Polonicae by Polish historian Jan Długosz (1415–1480). It is a comprehensive and detailed account written several decades after the battle. The reliability of this source suffers not only from the long gap between the events and the chronicle, but also Długosz's biases against the Lithuanians. Banderia Prutenorum is a mid-15th-century manuscript with images and Latin descriptions of the Teutonic battle flags captured during the battle and displayed in Wawel Cathedral and Vilnius Cathedral. Other Polish sources include two letters written by Władysław II Jagiełło to his wife Anne of Cilli and Bishop of Poznań Wojciech Jastrzębiec and letters sent by Jastrzębiec to Poles in the Holy See. German sources include a concise account in the chronicle of Johann von Posilge. A recently discovered anonymous letter, written between 1411 and 1413, provided important details on Lithuanian maneuvers.

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                HISTORIC BATTLES

                Battle of Grunwald (1410)

                Battle of Grunwald was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War. The alliance of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led respectively by King Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila) and Grand Duke Vytautas, decisively defeated the German–Prussian Teutonic Knights, led by Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen. View Historic Battle »

                Historical Background: In 1230 the Teutonic Knights, a crusading military order, moved to Chełmno Land and launched the Prussian Crusade against the pagan Prussian clans. With support from the pope and Holy Roman Emperor, the Teutons conquered and converted the Prussians by the 1280s and shifted their attention to the pagan Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

                Opposing Forces: While less numerous, the Teutonic army had advantages in discipline, military training and equipment. They were particularly noted for their heavy cavalry. The Teutonic army was also equipped with bombards that could shoot lead and stone projectiles.

                Course of the battle: The first stage of the Grunwald campaign was the gathering of all Polish–Lithuanian troops at Czerwinsk, a designated meeting point about 80 km (50 mi) from the Prussian border, where the joint army crossed the Vistula over a pontoon bridge.

                Aftermath: The defeat of the Teutonic Knights was resounding. According to Teutonic payroll records, only 1,427 men reported back to Marienburg to claim their pay. Of 1,200 men sent from Danzig, only 300 returned.


                Battle of Grunwald (1410)

                Battle of Grunwald was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War. The alliance of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led respectively by King Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila) and Grand Duke Vytautas, decisively defeated the German–Prussian Teutonic Knights, led by Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen.


                RESOURCES
                This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "Battle of Grunwald (1410)", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.


                BATTLE OF GRUNWALD (GRUNWALD BATTLEFIELD)

                The Battle of Grunwald, also known as the First Battle of Tannenburg, was one of the largest and most famous medieval engagements to have taken place in Eastern Europe. It pitted armies of an alliance between Poland and Lithuania against an invading army from Germany under the leadership of the Teutonic Knights. It essentially ended the German eastward expansion in the Middle Ages, checked the military power of the Teutonic crusaders, and helped to cement the growing importance of the Slavic realms in the Baltic region.

                History

                In the aftermath of the failure of the Crusades in the Holy Land, the order of the Teutonic Knights returned to Europe in the 13th century, where they became re-established in northeastern Germany. Desirous to continue their efforts, and to establish their own realm, they began to slowly expand eastward and along the shores of the Baltic Sea. Around the same time, large Slavic nations were achieving independence from the Mongols, and were slowly expanding westward.

                For over 150 years the German state expanded with the blessing of the Holy Roman Empire, but the nearby nations of Poland and Lithuania were also growing more powerful. Clashes beteen the states became increasingly violent in the late 1300s, especially after the marriage of the Queen of Poland to the Grand Duke of Lithuania in 1385. This alliance posed a direct threat to the Germans, and the dispute broke into open war in 1409.

                The Teutons launched a pre-emptive strike against the Poles, winning a few easy victories early on. The Poles raised their own army, and further reinforced with an army from Lithuania, launched a counteroffensive. After a brief truce, during which time the King of Bohemia attempted to mediate a solution, the war resumed in 1410. During the summer, a massive joint Polish-Lithuanian force invaded Prussia.

                The battle unfolded in three stages. At first, the smaller but militarily superior German force held off the first Lithuanian assault, forcing the Lithuanians to retreat. The main battle was then joined between the Germans and Poles. The fighting was roughly even, and both sides took heavy casualties. However, the Lithuanians then returned to the fight, striking the exhausted German army in the rear. The Teutonic Knights were forced to withdraw, and though they ultimately survived the war, never recovered their full strength again.

                Visiting

                The Battle of Grunwald actually took place between what are now the towns of Grunwald and Stebark. Despite the Polish victory, the location of the battlefield remained under German control due to the subsequent peace treaty, and remained so until after World War I. Because of this, it was not until 1945 that the battlefield became a national historic site in Poland. The battle is now commemorated by a memorial monument and small museum where the fighting took place.


                Battle of grunwald reenactment

                along the Baltic shore, allowed the Polish-Lithuanian alliance to flourish, eventually leading to the Photo: PAP/Tomasz Waszczuk, It’s harvest time in Lower Silesian vineyards, Maintaining the falconry tradition in Tuchola, V4 foreign ministers discuss future cooperation, Polish business services export growing: report, Tennis: Świątek makes history reaching final at Roland Garros, Cashless payment overtakes cash in Poland: daily, COVID-19: Entire Poland designated ‘yellow’ zone, Barley’s statements undermine EP, German EU presidency: Polish FM, Poles divided over vaccination against COVID-19: poll, Lednica lake to be explored by archaeologists, Into the fray: Collection of battle paintings in Warsaw.

                During the laying of the cornerstone event, Head of the Region, Mr. Gustaw Brzezin, said that the Grunwald battlefield is the symbol of the region. From this Friday, visitors to Warsaw’s National Museum will have a unique opportunity of seeing the first large-scale exhibition of paintings by. “The reenactment of the battle is a living theatre of history, a form of education and of fostering craftsmen presenting replicas of medieval weaponry and accessories. crusader knights brought in to spread Christianity among the pagan peoples inhabiting the areas The Battle of Grunwald, also known as the First Battle of Tannenberg, was a major conflict fought between the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy … Download preview.

                Battle of Grunwald 2010 (01).jpg 640 × 427 70 KB The PLN 30 mln investment will be co-financed by the European Operational Programme Infrastructure and Environment 2014-2020 (PLN 15 million) and by the regional government (PLN 15 million). Copyright © 2000-2020 Dreamstime. Since March 2018, over 600 metal relics have been found near the lake of Lednica in west-central Poland. preceding the battle itself were therefore also recreated in order to make the reenacted story more The construction of the new museum is the initiative of the Warmia-Masuria provincial authorities. “We would like to see this many tourists visit our region all year round”, added the official. “Apart from Nicolaus Copernicus, Grunwald is the second most recognized name in the Warmia-Masuria Region.
                The new 3,500 square building will be multifunctional. Wir akzeptieren alle gängigen Kreditkarten aus Deutschland. On Saturday, crowds gathered in the fields near the village of Grunwald, north-eastern Poland, to witness the annual reenactment of the great medieval battle which saw Polish-Lithuanian forces defeat the German-Prussian Teutonic Knights in 1410, leading to a major power shift in the region for centuries to come. tournaments as well as the opportunity to walk around a recreated military camp, with various A new museum of the Battle of Grunwald, one of the largest battles in Medieval Europe, is planned to open by 2020. It will include not only exhibition space, but also an indoor court for staging medieval knight tournaments, a conference room, staff offices as well as customer service and shopping areas. still decided to brave the elements in order to witness the battle that changed the course of European history. About 1,300 enthusiasts dressed in period armor and apparel clashed violently as onlookers watched

                Mr. Brzezina continued to say that the Grunwald battlefield is a huge tourist attraction during summers, when thousands of spectators come to watch the reenactment of the famous 1410 battle. medieval warriors remains the most spectacular and popular by far.

                Because of this, it was not until 1945 that the battlefield became a national historic site in Poland.

                However Tannenberg was chosen as the official name as a reference to the first Battle of Tannenberg on 15th July 1410 when an alliance between Poland and Lithuania defeated a German - Prussian army of Teutonic Nights. the world, with this year’s event attended by would-be knights from Hungary, Ukraine, Germany and All rights reserved. Krzysztof Górecki said during an interview, adding that this year, the emphasis was on the literary This event is, today, massively important to the Polish nation and the Grunwald (Tannenberg) battlefield is marked by an impressive memorial and museum.

                Grunwald is also of national significance, because here the largest Medieval battle took place.” compelling, Mr Górecki added. The construction of the new museum is the initiative of the Warmia-Masuria provincial authorities.

                It stopped the order’s expansion along the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea and marked the emergence of Poland-Lithuania as one of Europe’s most powerful states. Nevertheless, according to police data, about 15,000 people have with amazement, even though the outcome of the battle was obvious from the start. Media in category "Battle of Grunwald reenactment (2010)" The following 51 files are in this category, out of 51 total. Even though the reenactment is always based on the same historical events, the people involved in The battle was also accompanied by various side events, including concerts and medieval The Battle of Grunwald took place on July 15, 1410, and was a major Polish-Lithuanian victory over the Knights of the Teutonic Order. GRUNWALD - July 18: Clash in smoke, Polish, Lithuanian and other Knights vs Teutonic Knights at -Battle of Grunwald 1410 y. reenactment- July 18, 2009 in Grunwald, Poland. Photo: PAP/Tomasz Waszczuk. which marked the 608th anniversary of the battle, was no different, with the Teutonic Order facing even South Africa. Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted. Battle of Grunwald reenactment. It’s harvest time in Lower Silesian vineyards, Maintaining the falconry tradition in Tuchola, V4 foreign ministers discuss future cooperation, Polish business services export growing: report, Tennis: Świątek makes history reaching final at Roland Garros, Cashless payment overtakes cash in Poland: daily, COVID-19: Entire Poland designated ‘yellow’ zone, Barley’s statements undermine EP, German EU presidency: Polish FM, Poles divided over vaccination against COVID-19: poll.

                Designers also selected these stock photos, Anniversary of Battle of Grunwald 1410 reenactment, Grunwald, Poland - July 14th 2018: Battle of Grunwald 1410 reenactment, Grunwald, Poland - 2009-07-18: Rest after battle, Knights on the reconstruction of the Battle of Grunwald, Polish knights reenactors celebrating Polish Armed Forces Day 2018, MINSK, BELARUS - JULY 25, 2015: Historical restoration of knightly fights of Battle of Grunwald in Dudutki, Medieval couple in a reenactment in Italy, Historical restoration of knightly fights on, Monument to the Battle of Grunwald in Krakow, Poland. “The reenactment of the battle is a living theatre of history, a form of education and of fostering patriotic emotions,” said the head of the Grunwald Battle Museum, adding that while other, less audacious events of a more scholarly nature take place on the site all year round, the annual clash of medieval warriors remains the most spectacular and popular by far. The immense visual spectacle continues to remind the modern-day Poles of their A few events Editorial Stock Photo. value of the narrative rather than on the minutiae of medieval military tactics. Each year, the reenactment of the great medieval battle attracts history enthusiasts from all around A new museum of the Battle of Grunwald, one of the largest battles in Medieval Europe, is planned to open by 2020. The Battle of Grunwald actually took place between what are now the towns of Grunwald and Stebark. country’s greatest glories. The current seasonal Grunwald museum has become too small and does not meet the needs of visitors and curators any more. Battle of Grunwald re-enactment (every year on 15 July) (in Latin) Photos of Banderia Prutenorum, a catalog of captured Teutonic banners Festival to mark the 600th anniversary of the Battle of Grunwald in pictures on the official website of Belarus Last edited on 23 September 2020, at 05:25. This year, Despite the Polish victory, the location of the battlefield remained under German control due to the subsequent peace treaty, and remained so until after World War I. patriotic emotions,” said the head of the Grunwald Battle Museum, adding that while other, less This year’s rainy weather has meant that fewer tourists decided to immerse themselves in the rise of the regional superpower known as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. audacious events of a more scholarly nature take place on the site all year round, the annual clash of The defeat of the monastic Teutonic state, originally established by

                bringing the battle to life are always trying to introduce some new features, the director of the event

                GRUNWALD - July 18: Clash in smoke, Polish, Lithuanian and other Knights vs Teutonic Knights at -Battle of Grunwald 1410 y. reenactment- July 18, 2009 in Grunwald, Poland.

                bygone world of the 15th century. defeat once again as the Polish monarch Władysław II Jagiełło led his forces in a triumphant charge. During the laying of the cornerstone event, Head of the Region, Mr. Gustaw Brzezin, said that the Grunwald battlefield is the symbol of the region.

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